3rd Generation cellular data network. A technology used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks. It is based on a set of standards that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.


4th Generation cellular data network. A technology used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks. It is based on a set of standards that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.

10 Base T

An Ethernet local area network that works on twisted pair wiring. 10 indicates the transmission speed of 10 Mbps, while base refers to basehand signaling i.e. that it only carries Ethernet signals. T refers to the twisted pair of cables this technology uses.

100 Base T

A version of Ethernet that operates at 10 times the speed of a 10 BaseT Ethernet. 100 indicates the transmission speed of 100 Mbps, while base refers to basehand signaling i.e. that it only carries Ethernet signals. T refers to the twisted pair of cables this technology uses.

1000 Base T

A version of Ethernet that operates at 10 times the speed of a 100 BaseT Ethernet. 1000 indicates the transmission speed of 1,000 Mbps, while base refers to basehand signaling i.e. that it only carries Ethernet signals. T refers to the twisted pair of cables this technology uses.

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)

System service that authenticates a user and grants rights to perform specific tasks on the system.

Access Device

Device capable of sending or receiving data over a data communications channel.


Accounting measures the resources a user consumes during access. This can include the amount of system time or the amount of data a user has sent and/or received during a session. Accounting is carried out by logging session statistics and usage information and is used for authorization control, billing, trend analysis, resource utilisation, and capacity planning activities.


The ITU-T companding standard used in the conversion between analog and digital signals in PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) systems. A-law is used primarily in European telephone networks and contrasts with the North American mu (μ)-law standard. See also mu (μ)-law.

ANI (Automatic Number Identification)

In Channel Associated Signaling, the sending of the calling numbers is known as Automatic Number Identification.


In ISDN signaling, an Advice Of Charge (AOC-D) message is sent to advise of the current charge (D)uring a call or an AOC-E message is sent to advise of the total charge at the (E)nd of a call.

Area Code

The preliminary digits that a user must dial to be connected to a particular outgoing trunk group or line.


Authentication provides a way of identifying a user, typically by having the user enter a valid user name and valid password before access is granted. The process of authentication is based on each user having a unique set of criteria for gaining access. The AAA server compares a user's authentication credentials with other user credentials stored in a database. If the credentials match, the user is granted access to the network. If the credentials do not match, authentication fails and network access is denied.

Basic Rate Interface

Basic Rate Interface or Basic Rate Access is an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by the ITU. This configuration consists of two 64 kbit/s “bearer” channels (B channels) and one 16 kbit/s “data” channel (D channel). The B channels are used for voice or user data, and the D channel is used for any combination of: data, control/signalling and X.25 packet networking. The two B channels can be bonded together giving a total data rate of 128 kbit/s. BRI is the kind of ISDN interface most likely to be found in a residential service.

Basic Network Interfaces (Bni)

User service managing the layer 3 network interfaces.

Call Detail Record (Cdr)

User service allowing the administrator to generate custom call notifications with information such as endpoints, point of origin, duration, etc.

Call Routing

Calls through the unit can be routed based on a set of routing criteria.

Call Routing (CRout)

User service manipulating properties and routing calls between the telephony interfaces and the SIP endpoints.

Certificate Management (Cert)

System service that manages the security certificates used for the authentication of the unit and its peers before establishing a secure connection.

Channel Associated Signaling (CAS)

With this method of signaling, each traffic channel has a dedicated signaling channel. In other words the signaling for a particular traffic circuit is permanently associated with that circuit. Channel-associated call control is still widely used today mostly in South America, Africa, Australia and in Europe.

Command Line Interface (Cli)

User service allowing the administrator to manage the unit using the SSH or TELNET protocols.

Configuration Manager (Conf)

System service executing configuration scripts as well as performing backup/restore of the unit's configuration.

Country Code (CC)

In international direct telephone dialing, a code that consists of 1-, 2-, or 3-digit numbers in which the first digit designates the region and succeeding digits, if any, designate the country.

CPE WAN Management Protocol (Cwmp)

User service allowing the administrator to manage the unit using the TR-069 protocol.

Device Control Manager (Dcm)

System service managing the auto-detection and identification of unit hardware components as well as the licence activation keys.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server (Dhcp)

User service managing a DHCP server on each network interface.

Dialed Number Identification Service (DNIS)

DNIS is a telephone service that identifies for the receiver of a call the number that the caller dialed. It's a common feature of 800 and 900 lines. If you have multiple 800 or 900 numbers to the same destination, DNIS tells which number was called. DNIS works by passing the touch tone digits (dual tone multi frequency or MF digits) to the destination where a special facility can read and display them or make them available for call center programming.

Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)

A technology for bringing high-bandwidth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines. xDSL refers to different variations of DSL, such as ADSL, HDSL, and RADSL.

Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)

DER for ASN.1, as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.509, is a more restrictive encoding standard than the alternative BER (Basic Encoding Rules) for ASN.1, as defined in ITU-T Recommendation X.209, upon which DER is based. Both BER and DER provide a platform-independent method of encoding objects such as certificates and messages for transmission between devices and applications

Domain Name Server (DNS)

Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. For instance, the domain name might translate to

Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF)

In telephone systems, multi-frequency signaling in which a standard set combinations of two specific voice band frequencies, one from a group of four low frequencies and the other from a group of four higher frequencies, are used. Although some military telephones have 16 keys, telephones using DTMF usually have 12 keys. Each key corresponds to a different pair of frequencies. Each pair of frequencies corresponds to one of the ten decimal digits, or to the symbol “#” or “*”, the “*” being reserved for special purposes.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

TCP/IP protocol that enables PCs and workstations to get temporary or permanent IP addresses (out of a pool) from centrally-administered servers.


European PRI digital signal carrier. 32 channels (30 voice channels + synchronization and signaling).

Echo Cancellation

Technique that allows for the isolation and filtering of unwanted signals caused by echoes from the main transmitted signal.

E and M Channel Associated Signaling (Eam)

Service managing the E and M CAS telephony interfaces.

Endpoint Administration (EpAdm)

User service allowing for high-level management of telephony endpoints.

Endpoint Services (EpServ

User service managing the telephony services of each endpoint.

Ethernet Manager (Eth)

System service managing the unit's Ethernet link interfaces.


The restoration of the original state of a system after failing.


An automatic switch to a secondary system on failure of the primary system, used to insure the availability of critical resources, involving a parallel backup system running at all times so that, upon the detection of primary system failure, processing is automatically shifted to the backup.

Far End Disconnect

Refers to methods for detecting that a remote party has hung up. This is also known as Hangup Supervision. There are several methods that may be used by a PBX/ACD/CO to signal that the remote party has hung up, including clear down tone, or a wink.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

U.S. Government regulatory body for radio, television, interstate telecommunications services, and international services originating in the United States.

File Manager (File)

System service allowing the administrator to manage the files stored on the unit.


A firewall in a networked environment blocks some communications forbidden by the security policy. It has the basic task of controlling traffic between different zones of trust. Typical zones of trust include the Internet (a zone with no trust) and an internal network (a zone with high trust).

Foreign Exchange Office (FXO)

A network-provided service in which a telephone in a given local exchange area is connected, via a private line, to a central office in another, i.e., “foreign”, exchange, rather than the local exchange area’s central office. This is the office end of an FX circuit (frequently a PBX).

Foreign Exchange Service/Station (FXS)

A network-provided service in which a telephone in a given local exchange area is connected, via a private line, to a central office in another, i.e., “foreign”, exchange, rather than the local exchange area’s central office. This is the station (telephone) end of an FX circuit. An FXS port will provide dial tone and ring voltage.

Firmware Pack Updater (Fpu)

System service managing firmware upgrade, downgrade and rollback operations.

Full-Duplex Connection

Refers to a transmission using two separate channels for transmission and reception and that can transmit in both ways at the same time. See also Half Duplex Connection .


ITU-T recommendation for the physical and electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces at rates up to 140Mbit/s.


ITU-T recommendation for synchronous frame structures on G.703 interfaces up to 45Mbit/s. The conventional use of G.704 on a 2Mbit/s primary rate circuit provides 30 discrete 64kbit/s channels, with a further 64kbit/s channel available for common channel signaling


Algorithm designed to transmit and receive A-law PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) voice at digital bit rates of 48 kbps, 56 kbps, and 64 kbps. It is used for digital telephone sets on digital PBX and ISDN channels.


A codec that provides the greatest compression, 5.3 kbps or 6.3 kbps; typically specified for multimedia applications such as H.323 videoconferencing.


An implementation of ITU-T G.726 standard for conversion linear or A-law or μ-law PCM to and from a 40, 32, 24 or 16 kbit/s channel.


A codec that provides near toll quality at a low delay which uses compression to 8 kbps (8:1 compression rate).


A device linking two different types of networks that use different protocols (for example, between the packet network and the Public Switched Telephone Network).

Half-Duplex Connection

Refers to a transmission using the same channel for both transmission and reception therefore it can't transmit and receive at the same time. See also Full Duplex Connection.

Host Configuration (Hoc)

System service managing the IP host parameters and other system settings.

Hunt Group

The hunt group hunts an incoming call to multiple interfaces. It accepts a call routed to it by a routing table or directly from an interface and creates another call that is offered to one of the configured destination interfaces. If this destination cannot be reached, the hunt group tries another destination until one of the configured destinations accepts the call. When an interface accepts a call, the interface hunting is complete and the hunt group service merges the original call with the new call to the interface that accepted the call.


Impedance is the apparent resistance, in an electric circuit, to the flow of an alternating current, analogous to the actual electrical resistance to a direct current, being the ratio of electromotive force to the current.

Information Transfer Capability (ITC)

A request to the network exchange equipment to ask if a particular type of encoding is allowed. It is also called ISDN bearer capability or ISDN service.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

A set of digital transmission protocols defined by the international standards body for telecommunications, the ITU-T (formerly called the CCITT). These protocols are accepted as standards by virtually every telecommunications carrier all over the world. ISDN complements the traditional telephone system so that a single pair of telephone wires is capable of carrying voice and data simultaneously. It is a fully digital network where all devices and applications present themselves in a digital form.

Integrated Services Digital Network (Isdn)

User service managing the ISDN parameters for BRI and PRI telephony interfaces.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

Organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, that is the most important telecom standards-setting body in the world.


Internet-Drafts are working documents of the IETF, its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet Protocol (IP)

A standard describing software that keeps track of the Internet’s addresses for different nodes, routes outgoing messages, and recognizes incoming messages.

IP Forwarding

Allows the packet to be forwarded to a specific network based on the packet’s criteria (source IP address and source Ethernet link).

IP Routing (IpRouting)

User service managing the unit's IP routing table.

IP Synchronisation (IpSync)

User service controlling the IP media synchronization using clock reference signals sent over IP.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)

IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) is a 32-bit address internet protocol.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)

IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is the successor to the common Internet Protocol (IPv4). IPv6’s is a 128-bit address Internet protocol.


A distortion caused by the variation of a signal from its references which can cause data transmission errors, particularly at high speeds.

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

A semiconductor diode that emits light when a current is passed through it.

Link Layer Discovery Protocol (Lldp)

User service managing the IEEE 802.1ab protocol used for advertising the unit's capabilities on the network.

Local Area Network (LAN)

Data-only communications network confined to a limited geographic area, with moderate to high data rates. See also WAN .

Local Firewall

Allows you to dynamically create and configure rules to filter incoming packets with the unit as destination. The traffic is analysed and filtered by all the configured rules.

Local Firewall (Lfw)

User service allowing the administrator to filter incoming packets with the unit as final destination.

Local Quality Of Service (LQos)

System service managing the QOS parameters applicable to the unit.

Management Information Base (MIB)

Specifications containing definitions of management information so that networked systems can be remotely monitored, configured and controlled.

Media Access Control (MAC) Address

A layer 2 address, 6 bytes long, associated with a particular network device; used to identify devices in a network; also called hardware or physical address.

Media Interface

The Media Interface is used for media ( RTP, UDPTL) processing.

Media IP Transport (Mipt)

User service managing the voice and data encodings over the IP network.

Mu (μ)-Law

The PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) voice coding and companding standard used in Japan and North America. See also A-Law.

Music on Hold (MoH)

User service managing the option to play an audio file when a telephony endpoint is on hold.


A group of computers, terminals, and other devices and the hardware and software that enable them to exchange data and share resources over short or long distances. A network can consist of any combination of local area networks (LAN) or wide area networks (WAN).

Network Address Translation (NAT)
NAT, also known as network masquerading or IP masquerading, rewrites the source and/or destination addresses/ports of IP packets as they pass through a router or firewall. It is most commonly used to connect multiple computers to the Internet (or any other IP network) by using one IP address. This allows home users and small businesses to cheaply and efficiently connect their network to the Internet. The basic purpose of NAT is to multiplex traffic from the internal network and present it to the Internet as if it was coming from a single computer having only one IP address. There are two types of NAT rules:
  • Source rules: They are applied on the source address of outgoing packets.
  • Destination rules: They are applied on the destination address of incoming packets.
Network Address Translation (Nat)

User service allowing the administrator to change the source or the destination IP address of a packet.

Network Firewall

Allows dynamically creating and configuring rules to filter packets forwarded by the unit. Since this is a network firewall, rules only apply to packets forwarded by the unit. The traffic is analyzed and filtered by all the rules configured.

Network Firewall (Nfw)

User service allowing the administrator to filter traffic that is routed between networks.

Network Traffic Control (Ntc)

User service allowing the administrator to perform traffic shaping on the network interfaces.

Notification and Logging Manager (Nlm)

User service managing the routing and filtering of the unit's event notification messages.


A line condition caused when a telephone handset is removed from its cradle.


A line condition caused when a telephone handset is resting in its cradle.


Includes three principal elements: control information (such as destination, origin, length of packet), data to be transmitted, and error detection. The structure of a packet depends on the protocol.

Plain Old Telephone System (POTS)

Standard telephone service used by most residential locations; basic service supplying standard single line telephones, telephone lines, and access to the public switched network.

Plain Old Telephone System Line (Pots)

User service managing the FXS and FXO analog telephony interfaces.

Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)

A proposal specifying how a host personal computer interacts with a broadband modem (i.e., DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) to access the growing number of Highspeed data networks. Relying on two widely accepted standards, Ethernet and the point-to-point protocol (PPP), the PPPoE implementation requires virtually no more knowledge on the part of the end user other than that required for standard Dial up Internet access. In addition, PPPoE requires no major changes in the operational model for Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and carriers. The base protocol is defined in RFC 2516.


Network access point, the identifier used to distinguish among multiple simultaneous connections to a host.

Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)

POSIX is a set of standard operating system interfaces based on the UNIX operating system. The need for standardization arose because enterprises using computers wanted to be able to develop programs that could be moved among different manufacturer's computer systems without having to be recoded.

Primary Rate Interface (PRI)

A telecommunications standard for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between two physical locations. All data and voice channels are (ISDN) and operate at 64 kbit/s. North America and Japan use a T1 of 23 B channels and one D channel which corresponds to a T1 line. Europe, Australia and most of the rest of the world use the slightly higher capacity E1, which is composed of 31 B channels and one D channel. Fewer active B channels (also called user channels) can be used for a fractional T1. More channels can be used with more T1's, or with a fractional or full T3 or E3.

Presentation Indicator (PI)

An information element (IE) field that determines whether a caller’s CLI can be displayed on a Caller ID device or otherwise presented to the called party.

Private Branch Exchange (PBX)

A small to medium sized telephone system and switch that provides communications between onsite telephones and exterior communications networks.

Process Control Manager (PCM)

System service managing the start-up and shutdown sequences of the system.


A formal set of rules developed by international standards bodies, LAN equipment vendors, or groups governing the format, control, and timing of network communications. A set of conventions dealing with transmissions between two systems. Typically defines how to implement a group of services in one or two layers of the OSI reference model. Protocols can describe low-level details of machine-to-machine interfaces or high-level exchanges between allocation programs.

Proxy Server

An intermediary program that acts as both a server and a client for the purpose of making requests on behalf of other clients. Requests are serviced internally or by passing them on, possibly after translation, to other servers. A proxy interprets, and, if necessary, rewrites a request message before forwarding it.

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

The local telephone company network that carries voice data over analog telephone lines.


QSIG is an ISDN based signaling protocol for signaling between private branch exchanges (PBXs) in a Private Integrated Services Network (PISN). It makes use of the connection-level Q.931 protocol and the application level ROSE protocol. ISDN "proper" functions as the physical link layer.

Quality of Service (QoS)

Measure of the telephone service quality provided to a subscriber. This could be, for example, the longest time someone should wait after picking up the handset before they receive dial tone (three seconds in most U.S. states).

R2 Channel Associated Signaling (R2)

User service managing the E1 CAS telephony interfaces.

Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP)

RTCP is the control protocol designed to work in conjunction with RTP. It is standardised in RFC 1889 and 1890. In an RTP session, participants periodically send RTCP packets to convey feedback on quality of data delivery and information of membership.

Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP)

An IETF standard for streaming real-time multimedia over IP in packets. Supports transport of real-time data like interactive voice and video over packet switched networks.

Registrar Server

A server that accepts REGISTER requests. A registrar is typically co-located with a proxy or redirect server and MAY offer location services.

Request for Comment (RFC)

A formal document from the IIETF that is the result of committee drafting and subsequent review by interested parties. Some RFCs are informational in nature. Of those that are intended to become Internet standards, the final version of the RFC becomes the standard and no further comments or changes are permitted. Change can occur, however, through subsequent RFCs that supersede or elaborate on all or parts of previous RFCs.

SBC Session

An SBC session is a SIP call established between two endpoints not including the SBC. A session usually has 2 call legs, one incoming and one outgoing of the SBC.

Screening Indicator (SI)

A service provided by ISDN that can be used to test the trustworthiness of the calling party’s number. This signalling-related information element is found in octet 3a of the ISDN SETUP message.

Service Controller Manager (Scm)

System service allowing the administrator to enable or disable services.

Session Border Controller (Sbc)

User service allowing the administrator to perform SIP to SIP normalization, call routing, NAT traversal and survivability.

Session Border Controller (SBC)

A Session Border Controller used in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) networks to control the signaling and media streams involved in establishing, conducting and analysing telephone calls or other interactive media communications.

Session Description Protocol (SDP)

Describes multimedia sessions for the purpose of session announcement, session invitation and other forms of multimedia session initiation. SDP communicates the existence of a session and conveys sufficient information to enable participation in the session. SDP is described in RFC 2327.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

A protocol for transporting call setup, routing, authentication, and other feature messages to endpoints within the IP domain, whether those messages originate from outside the IP cloud over SCN resources or within the cloud.

Signaling Interface

The Signaling Interface is used for SIP signaling.

Simple Network Management Protocol (Snmp)

User service allowing the administrator to manage the unit using the SNMP protocol.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

A standard of network management that uses a common software agent to manage local and wide area network equipments from different vendors; part of the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/ IP) suite and defined in RFC 1157.

Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)

SNTP, which is an adaptation of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), is widely used to synchronize computer clocks in the global Internet. It provides comprehensive mechanisms to access national time and frequency dissemination services, organize the time-synchronization subnet and adjust the local clock in each participating subnet peer. In most places of the Internet of today, NTP provides accuracies of 1-50 ms, depending on the characteristics of the synchronisation source and network paths.

SIP Endpoint (SipEp)

User service allowing the administrator to associate telephony endpoints with SIP user agents.

Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)

Session Traversal Utilities for NAT is a standardized set of methods and a network protocol to allow an end host to discover its public IP address if it is located behind a Network Address Translation (NAT)


An efficient means of splitting packets into two fields to separate packets for local destinations from packets for remote destinations in TCP/IP networks.

Switched Circuit Network (SCN)

A SCN (Switched Circuit Network) is a general term to designate a communication network in which any user may be connected to any other user through the use of message, circuit, or packet switching and control devices. The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or a Private Branch eXchange (PBX) are examples of SCNs.


North-American PRI digital signal carrier. 24 channels (23 voice + 1 signaling)


An ITU-T Recommendation for Real-time fax over IP. T.38 addresses IP fax transmissions for IP-enabled fax devices and fax gateways, defining the translation of T.30 fax signals and Internet Fax Protocols (IFP) packets.


Method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern


The science of translating sound into electrical signals, transmitting them, and then converting them back into sound.

Telephony Interface (TelIf)

User service managing tone generation and detection on the telephony interfaces.


The TR-069 also known as CWMP, is a Broadband Forum technical specification. This protocol can be used for monitoring and updating CPE configurations and firmware.


The TR-104 is a part of CWMP, a Broadband Forum technical specification. This specification defines the data model for provisioning a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) CPE device by an Auto-Configuration Server (ACS) using the mechanism defined in TR-069.


TR-106 specifies data model guidelines to be followed by all TR-069-enabled devices.


This specification extends the mechanism defined in TR-069 for remote management of customer premises equipment to allow a management system to more easily access and manage devices connected via LAN through an Internet gateway.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

The basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet).

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

A simplified version of FTP that transfers files but does not provide password protection, directory capability, or allow transmission of multiple files with one command.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

An efficient but unreliable, connectionless protocol that is layered over IP, as is TCP. Application programs are needed to supplement the protocol to provide error processing and retransmission of data. UDP is an OSI layer 4 protocol.

Virtual LAN (VLAN)

A network of computers that behave as if they are connected to the same wire even though they may actually be physically located on different segments of a LAN. One of the biggest advantages of VLANs is that when a computer is physically moved to another location, it can stay on the same VLAN without any hardware reconfiguration.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, to communicate over a public network. VPN message traffic is carried on public networking infrastructure (e.g. the Internet) using standard (often insecure) protocols, or over a service provider's network providing VPN service guarded by well defined Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider.

Voice Over IP (VoIP)

The technology used to transmit voice conversations over a data network using the Internet Protocol. Such data network may be the Internet or a corporate Intranet.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A large (geographically dispersed) network, usually constructed with serial lines, that covers a large geographic area. A WAN connects LANs using transmission lines provided by a common carrier.

Web (WEB)

User service allowing the administrator to manage the unit using HTTP(S) web pages.


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